General Directorate Of State Hydraulic Works
ENERGY
 

 

HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY

Sources of Energy

  • The level of energy consumption indicates the level of industrialization and prosperity of countries. Recently, annual energy consumption per capita in Turkey has reached 2,100 kWh (kilowatt hours), which is still below the world average of 2,500 kWh. The average energy consumption for the developed countries is 8,900 kWh, but it varies from 12,322 kWh in the USA to 827 kWh in China. Industrialization is our main target on the road to economic and social development. Therefore, it is essential to meet the energy demands of industry and other consumers in a timely and sustainable manner.
  • While total energy generation in Turkey in the 1950’s was a mere 800 GWh (gigawatt hours), this figure has increased by about 190 times, reaching 151,000 GWh/year today. The current installed capacity in Turkey is 37,500 MW (megawatt), which could generate an average of 220,000 GWh/year; however, total generation remains at 151,000 GWh for reasons such as failures, maintenance and repair activities, operation policy, economic recession, low demand, drought, efficiency, etc. In other words, average capacity utilisation remains at 69%. Capacity utilisation has been 59% in thermal plants and 105% in hydroelectric power plants. 31% of energy generation in Turkey depends on hydroelectric power, which is a renewable energy source, and the remaining 69% on thermal power (natural gas, lignite, coal, fuel oil, etc., which are fossil fuels). A special emphasis has recently been placed on alternative energy sources such as wind and geothermal power and there have been some steps taken towards introducing the use of nuclear power as well.

INSTALLED CAPACITY AND GENERATION IN TURKEY *

Installed Capacity and Annual Generation

2003

2004 (Provisional)

CAPACITY

ACTUAL

Capacity

Use

CAPACITY

ACTUAL

Capacity

Use

Installed (MW)

Generation

(GWh)

Generation

(GWh)

Ratio

(%)

Installed (MW)

Generation

(GWh)

Generation

(GWh)

Ratio

(%)

THERMAL POWER

COAL

8,239

53,940

32,253

60

8,923

58,391

34,558

59

FUEL OIL

3,198

21,085

9,196

44

3,202

21,167

9,800

46

NATURAL GAS

11,510

86,154

63,536

74

12,640

94,867

59,098

62

OTHERS

28

207

116

56

27

207

76

37

TOTAL

22,974

161,387

105,101

65

24,792

174,632

103,532

59

Geothermal and Wind Power

34

156

150

96

34

156

160

103

Hydroelectric Power

12,579

45,152

35,329

78

12,654

45,435

47,614

105

GENERAL TOTAL

35,587

206,695

140,580

68

37,480

220,223

151,306

69

(*) Reference: APK (Research, Planning and Coordination Department) of TEİAŞ (Turkish Electricity Transmission Authority, January 2005

  • Natural gas and oil in Turkey are insufficient energy resources. Therefore, Turkey has to import oil, natural gas, and even hard coal to meet its energy needs. In recent years, an upward trend has taken place in the consumption of natural gas in Turkey for both domestic and industrial use. Natural gas power plants aim to meet the growing energy demands of industries. Therefore, the share of hydroelectric power has dropped while the share of thermal energy has increased in overall energy generation. Nevertheless, the European Union places great emphasis on green power in energy policies (hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass energies). Thus, it is important to harmonize the energy policy and relevant legislation in Turkey with European energy policy. Consequently, the weight of hydroelectric power in overall generation needs to be increased. The two authorities in charge of developing hydropower potential are DSİ and the Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration. The latter focuses more on survey and planning, whereas DSİ deals with both planning and realization of projects.
  • The following table makes a comparison of various sources of energy in terms of air pollution, effects on climate, normal operational radioactivity, eyesores, meeting peak demand, and risk vulnerability. This table indicates that hydroelectric power plants are the least risky and the least harmful ones in comparison with the other types of power plants.


A Scaled Graphic Showing Drawbacks of Various Power Plants


    Hydroelectric power plants should be preferred because of their environment-friendly technologies with the lowest risk potential. These plants are able to respond to unexpected demand fluctuations. Therefore, they are operated as peak power plants in Turkey as well as in other countries. Hydroelectric power is environment-friendly, clean, renewable, able to meet peak demands, highly efficient (over 90%), involves no fuel cost, is a balancer of energy prices, has a long life- span (200 years), its cost recovery is short-run (5-10 years), its operational costs are low, (approximately 0.2 cent/kWh), and it is an indigenous source of energy which is national and natural.

Note: In the above tables, production values show the figures that cumulative electricity productions (kWh) obtained until 2003 have been multiplied by 5 cents for one kilowatt hour.

  • If half of the world’s economically viable hydroelectric potential were developed, greenhouse gas emissions would be decreased by 13%. Compared to other power plants, hydroelectric plants have the lowest operational cost, the longest operational life, and the highest efficiency rates. There are economic, environmental and strategic reasons for giving priority/incentives to hydropower stations among other power plants. Moreover, HEPPs use our own national resources.

Turkey’s Hydroelectric Potential

  • The hydroelectric potential of a country is calculated under the presumption that all natural flows, until the country’s borders or until the sea, will be used with 100% efficiency. This calculation produces the gross theoretical hydroelectric potential of a country. However, even the latest technologies available today cannot make utmost use of this potential. Therefore, the maximum potential that can be used in the existing technologies is referred to as the technically viable hydroelectric potential. Nevertheless, not every technically viable utility is economically viable. Thus, the portion of the technically viable potential that can be realized under the existing and expected local economic conditions is referred to as the economically viable hydroelectric potential. Turkey’s theoretical hydroelectric potential is 1% of that of the World and 16% of that of Europe.

HYDROELECTRIC POTENTIAL OF THE WORLD

AND TURKEY

 

 

Gross Theoretical Potential of HEPP (GWh/year)

Technically Viable Potential of HEPP (GWh/year)

Economically Viable Potential of HEPP (GWh/year)

WORLD

40,150,000

14,060,000

8,905,000

EUROPE

3,150,000

1,225,000

800 ,000

TURKEY

433,000

216,000

127,381


Metin Kutusu: TECHNICALLY VIABLE POTENTIAL  

  • The gross theoretical viable hydroelectric potential in Turkey is 433 billion kWh and the technically viable potential is 216 billion kWh. The economically viable potential, however, is 127 billion kWh. The tax deductions and subsidy policies for green energy in the European Union will contribute to efforts aimed at increasing the economically viable potential of hydroelectricity.
At present Turkey has 135 hydroelectric power plants in operation with total installed capacity of 12,631 MW generating an average of 45,325 GWh/year, which is 36% of the economically viable hydroelectric potential. Forty-one hydroelectric power plants are currently under construction with 3,187 MW of installed capacity to generate an average annual 10,645 GWh representing 8% of the economically viable potential. In the future, 502 more hydroelectric power plants will be constructed to be able to make maximum use of the remaining 71,411 GWh/year of economically viable potential. As a result of these works, a total of 678 hydroelectric power plants with 36,260 MW will tame rivers to harness the economically viable hydropower of Turkey.

Status of Economically Viable Potential

Number of Hydro- electric Plants

Total Installed Capacity
(MW)

Average Annual Generation
(GWh/year)

Ratio

(%)

In Operation

135

12,631

45,325

36

Under Construction

41

3,187

10,645

8

In Program

502

20,442

71,411

56

Total Potential

678

36,260

127,381

100

  • The USA has developed 86% of the country’s technically viable hydroelectric potential while Japan has realized 78%, Norway 68%, Canada 56% and Turkey 21%. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has foreseen a 53% increase of the current use of world hydroelectric power and other renewable energy sources by 2020, which is a sign that all hydroelectric potential will be put into operation. The European Commission has incorporated an action plan into the European Union strategies to double the ratio of renewable energy sources in gross internal energy consumption (from 6% to 12%) and to increase the same ratio to 22.1% in terms of electricity generation by 2010.
  • The annual increase in energy consumption is 6-8% in Turkey, except for recession years. In order to meet this growing demand, Turkey has to invest US$ 3-4 billion in new energy projects each year. As can be seen all over the world, power generation is a vital issue, therefore it is important for every country that energy be produced in self-sufficient, reliable, constant, and economical ways. For that matter, all energy alternatives should be thoroughly evaluated, starting from hydroelectric power potentials running with local energy sources, which are not dependent on other countries.

LONG-TERM ENERGY SUPPLY FORECASTS FOR TURKEY

 

Type of Power Plant

Year 2010

Year 2015

Year 2020

 

Rainy

Dry

 

Rainy

Dry

 

Rainy

Dry

MW

Billion kWh

MW

Billion kWh

MW

Billion kWh

Thermal

30,583

211

211

45,603

314

314

62,273

426

426

Renewable (Hydropower)

18,234

62

46

25,670

89

60

34,076

118

77

Total Supply

48,817

273

257

71,273

403

374

96,349

544

503

Reference: TEİAŞ-Turkey Electric Energy Generation Planning Studies (2005-2020)-Oct. 2004

 

HYDROELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT IN TURKEY

 

POTENTIAL : 36,260 MW (678 HEPPs)

IN OPERATION : 12,631 MW (135 HEPPs)

      • DSİ : 10,215 MW ( 53 HEPPs)
      • OTHER : 2,416 MW ( 82 HEPPs)

  • As a primary executive public agency in hydroelectric power development, State Hydraulic Works has developed 10,215 MW (81%) of the total of 12,631 MW realized installed capacity in Turkey. 20 of the 25 largest realized hydroelectric power plants in Turkey have been developed by State Hydraulic Works.

Turkey’s Hydroelectric Power Development in Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) and in the Rest of Turkey

  • The following pie chart displays the role of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) within the existing economically viable hydroelectric potential (127.3 billion kWh) in Turkey in terms of hydroelectric generation today and in the future. The chart indicates that the units of GAP in operation are supplying 16% of the total hydropower potential of Turkey. With a further development of 5% in GAP in the future, the total contribution will reach 21%, which consists of 27.4 billion kWh. The GAP scheme has already had a considerable impact (45%) on overall hydropower generation in Turkey. In other words, 20.4 billion kWh out of 45.3 billion kWh of hydroelectric generation has been supplied by the power plants in the GAP project to date. The hydropower realization ratio in GAP has reached 74% within the project itself.

 

  • There ongoing plans for creation of a second chain of major hydroelectric projects around the Coruh Basin. When all of the projects (8,260 GWh) in the Coruh River Master Plan are completed, this chain of projects will exploit 6.4% of Turkey’s overall hydroelectric potential. In order to define the work phases of these projects, PR for “Plans Ready”; FDR for “Final Design Ready”; UC for “Under Construction” and IO for "In Operation" are used.
These power plants projects are:
Laleli (PR, 99 MW-204 GWh),
İspir (PR, 54 MW-327 GWh),
Güllübağ (PR, 84 MW-285 GWh),
Aksu (PR, 120 MW-344 GWh),
Arkun (PR, 222 MW-788 GWh),
Yusufeli (FDR, 540 MW-1,705 GWh),
Artvin (FDR, 332 MW-1,026 GWh),
Deriner (UC, 670 MW- 2,118 GWh),
Borçka (UC, 300 MW-1,039 GWh) ,
Muratlı (IO, 115 MW-444 GWh).


  • The most important step of the energy conversion process is the construction of dams with large reservoirs that require specialization or expertise in these types of constructions. Here are some of the major steps of dam construction:

Once the feasibility study of a dam is completed, the final design and application projects are prepared before construction actually begins.

 

The first step in construction is the diversion of the riverbed by means of a diversion tunnel and cofferdam in order to dry the construction site.

 

Diversion structures are so dimensioned that they can resist a flood with a recurrence interval of 25 years.

    Excavation for the dam body commences.

Filling of the dam body starts.

 As the body rises, safety discharge units (spillway, sluice gate) are constructed.

 If a dam has a Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP), the electro-mechanical equipment is installed.

 

 

 

DSİ’s Hydroelectric Power Plants Under Construction

 

NO

NAME OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

 

PROVINCE

INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)

ANNUAL GENERATION (GWh)

COMPLETION

DATE

1

AKKÖPRÜ

MUĞLA

115

343

2007

2

ALPASLAN-I

MUŞ

160

488

2007

3

ATASU

TRABZON

5

27

2009

4

BOĞAZKÖY

BURSA

10

20

2008

5

BORÇKA**

ARTVİN

300

1,039

2006

6

CİNDERE

DENİZLİ

29

88

2007

7

ÇİNE

AYDIN

40

118

2007

8

DERİNER**

ARTVİN

670

2,118

2008

9

DİM

ANTALYA

38

123

2007

10

ERMENEK**

KARAMAN

309

1,187

2007

11

KILAVUZLU

K.MARAŞ

57

100

2007

12

KİĞI

BİNGÖL

140

423

2009

13

KİRAZLIKÖPRÜ

KASTAMONU

12

41

2008

14

KÖPRÜBAŞI

ZONGULDAK

74

203

2008

15

KUMKÖY

SAMSUN

10

65

2006

16

MANYAS

BALIKESİR

20

59

2007

17

MURATLI**

ARTVİN

115

444

2005

18

OBRUK

ÇORUM

200

473

2007

19

SÜREYYABEY (Aş.Çekerek)

YOZGAT

14

50

2008

20

ŞANLIURFA –TÜNEL

ŞANLIURFA

50

124

2005

21

TOPÇAM

ORDU

60

200

2007

22

TORUL

GÜMÜŞHANE

103

322

2006

23

ULUBAT- ÇINARCIK*

BURSA

120

548

2009

24

UZUNÇAYIR

TUNCELİ

71

317

2007

 

TOTAL

 

2,722

8,920

 

* The private sector will construct the HEPP due to licences issed by EPDK (Energy Market Regulatory Authority).

** Being built pursuant to intergovernmental agreement with full financing.

 

DAMS AND HYDROPOWER STATIONS IN OPERATION IN TURKEY (CAPACITIES LARGER THAN 100 MW)

No

 

Dam & Generating Facility

Construction

Location

 

Embank-ment Volume ( 1,000 m 3)

Crest Level

(m)

Height

Normal

Reservoir Volume

(hm 3)

Lake Area

(km 2)

Energy Benefit

Starting Year

Completion Year

River

Province

From Foundation

(m)

From River Bed

(m)

Normal

Water Level

(m)

Capacity (MW)

Annual Generation (GWh)

1

ATATÜRK

1983

1992

Fırat

Şanlıurfa

84,500

549.00

169.00

166.00

542.00

48,700

817.00

2,400

8,900

2

KARAKAYA

1976

1987

Fırat

Diyarbakır

2,000

698.00

173.00

158.00

693.00

9,580

268.00

1,800

7,354

3

KEBAN

1965

1975

Fırat

Elazığ

15,585

848.00

207.00

163.00

845.00

31,000

675.00

1,330

6,000

4

ALTINKAYA

1980

1988

Kızılırmak

Samsun

16,000

195.00

195.00

140.00

190.00

5,763

118.31

700

1,632

5

BİRECİK (2)

1993

2000

Fırat

Ş.Urfa

9,209

389.00

63.50

53.50

385.00

1,220

56.25

672

2,518

6

OYMAPINAR

1977

1984

Manavgat

Antalya

676

185.00

185.00

157.00

184.00

300

4.70

540

1,620

7

BERKE (2)

1991

2001

Ceyhan

K.Maraş

735

346.00

201.00

186.00

345.00

427

7.80

510

1,672

8

HASAN UĞURLU

1971

1981

Yeşilırmak

Samsun

9,223

195.00

175.00

135.00

190.00

1,074

22.66

500

1,217

9

SIR (2)

1987

1991

Ceyhan

K.Maraş

494

443.00

116.00

106.00

440.00

1,120

47.50

284

725

10

GÖKÇEKAYA

1967

1972

Sakarya

Eskişehir

650

392.00

158.00

115.00

388.00

910

20.00

278

562

11

BATMAN

1986

1998

Batman

Batman

5,400

668.50

85.50

71.50

665.00

1,175

49.25

198

483

12

KARKAMIŞ

1996

1999

Fırat

Maraş

1,537

346.00

40.00

22.50

340.00

157

28

180

652

13

ÖZLÜCE

1985

1998

Peri

Bingöl

14,000

1,144.00

144.00

124.00

1140.00

1,075

25.80

170

413

14

ÇATALAN

1982

1996

Seyhan

Adana

17,000

130.00

82.00

70.00

125.00

2,126

81.86

169

596

15

SARIYAR (2)

1950

1956

Sakarya

Ankara

568

480.00

108.00

90.00

475.00

1,900

83.83

160

400

16

GEZENDE

1979

1990

Ermenek

İçel

83

335.00

75.00

71.00

333.00

92

3.97

159

528

17

ASLANTAŞ

1975

1984

Ceyhan

Adana

8,493

160.00

95.00

78.00

146.00

1,150

49.00

138

569

18

HİRFANLI

1953

1959

Kızılırmak

Kırşehir

2,000

860.00

83.00

78.00

851.00

5,980

263.00

128

400

19

MENZELET

1980

1989

Ceyhan

K.Maraş

8,700

614.50

156.50

136.50

609.40

1,950

42.00

124

515

20

KILIÇKAYA

1980

1989

Kelkit

Sivas

6,900

855.00

134.00

103.00

850.00

1,400

64.42

124

332

21

DİCLE

1986

1997

Dicle

Diyarbakır

2,180

718.00

87.50

75.00

715.50

595

24.00

110

298

 

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General Directorate Of State Hydraulic Works