Page 19 - Water and DSİ

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CHAPTER II - LAND & WATER RESOURCES
2.5. Climate
Turkey has a semi-arid climate with
some extremities in temperature.
Turkey is surrounded by seas on
three sides and high mountains
stretching along the Black Sea coast
in the north and along the
Mediterranean Sea coast in the south.
On account of its geographical
features, Turkey has four distinctive
seasons. Variation in altitude up to
5,000 m causes different climatic
conditions in the same season. Distance from sea and fluctuations in altitude result in climatic
variance within short distances. Temperature, precipitation and winds vary, based on climatic
features. The difference in the north to the south latitude (6
0
) also plays a role in this temperature
change. The Mediterranean region (southern coastal region) is regarded as sub-tropical,
characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. The Black Sea region receives rain
throughout the year and has both mild summers and winters. The Aegean Region (Western
Anatolia) has mountains which run roughly east to west (i.e. perpendicular to the coast) and
which are interspersed with grassy flood plains. It has also a Mediterranean type of climate with
hot, dry summers and mild winters. Surrounded by high mountains, Central Anatolia is a vast
high plateau with an average altitude of 1,000 meters above sea level. Central Anatolia features a
semi-arid continental climate, i.e. hot and dry summers. Central Anatolia has a steppe climate
with little precipitation and daily and yearly temperature values differing significantly. Winters are
long and cold in Central and Eastern Anatolia, while mild and short in coastal regions.
2.6. Precipitation
Rainfall is scarce during the plant growing
season in most parts of Turkey. Important
fluctuations in precipitation occur from
year to year. Overall, the coastal regions
receive 800-1,000 mm rainfall, especially
the mountainous coastal regions (1,000–
2,500 mm/year). The northern coastal
zone (the Black Sea Region) receives the
highest rainfall (1,260–2,500 mm/year). Precipitation is 500–1,000 mm/year in the Marmara and
Aegean regions and in East Anatolia plateaus. Inner parts away from coastal fringes receive
relatively less. Central Anatolia and South-eastern Anatolia have precipitation only 350–500
mm/year. The Central Anatolia receives the lowest rainfall (200-600 mm) causing drought with
summer months of high evaporation and temperature. The environs of Lake Tuz in Central
Anatolia receive the lowest precipitation level (250–300 mm/year). The average annual rainfall in
Turkey is about 643 mm.
Snow falls in almost every region of Turkey, but the number of days on which it snows and the
durations of snow cover vary considerably with regard to the regions. It snows less than one day
a year in the Mediterranean Region while more than 40 days in Eastern Anatolia on average. The
duration of snow cover is less than one day in the Mediterranean and Aegean coastal fringes, 10–
2500 mm
250 mm