Page 20 - Water and DSİ

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19
CHAPTER II - LAND & WATER RESOURCES
20 days in the Marmara and Black Sea
coastal areas, 20-40 days in Central
Anatolia, and 120 days in the Erzurum and
Kars provinces in Eastern Anatolia.
Throughout the four seasons, higher parts
of the mountains retain snow, which melts
slowly, feeding rivers and ground waters.
2.7. Rivers and Lakes
Turkey has about 120 natural lakes,
including small lakes in the mountains.
The largest and deepest lake
of Turkey
located in the Eastern Anatolian region is Lake Van with a surface area of 3,712 km
2
and an
altitude of 1,646 m from sea level. The second largest lake is Lake Tuz in central Anatolia. Being
relatively shallow, this lake is at an altitude of 925 m from sea level and has a surface area of 1,500
km
2
. The waters of this lake are shallow (0.5 m deep) and very salty. Most of the lakes of Turkey
are shallow and contain bitter and brackish water. Therefore lakes cannot be used for irrigation.
Only some of them such as Manyas, Beyşehir, Uluabat, İznik can be used for irrigation purposes.
There are four main regions where lakes are intensively dispersed: The “Lakes District” (Eğirdir,
Burdur, Beysehir, and Acıgol Lakes), Southern Marmara (Sapanca, Iznik, Ulubat, and Kuş Lakes),
Lake Van and its environs, and Lake Tuz and its environs. Although some of the lakes are only a
few meters in depth, some of them in more than 30 meters. The depth of Lake Van is more than
100 m. Turkey has 741 dam reservoirs.
The names and surface areas (km
2
) of the large ones are Atatürk (817), Keban (675), Karakaya
(268), Hirfanlı (263), Altinkaya (118), and Kurtbogazı (6).
Many rivers rise and empty into seas within Turkey’s borders. Rivers can be classified in relation
to the sea into which they empty. The rivers emptying into the Black Sea are the Sakarya, Filyos,
Kızılırmak, Yesilırmak, and Coruh. The rivers emptying into Mediterranean Sea are the Asi,
Seyhan, Ceyhan, Tarsus, and Dalaman. The rivers emptying into the Aegean Sea are the Büyük
Menderes, Küçük Menderes, Gediz, and Meric. The rivers empting into the Sea of Marmara are
the Susurluk/Simav, Biga, and Gönen. The Euphrates and Tigris rivers empty into the Gulf of
Basra, while the Aras and Kura rivers empty into the Caspian Sea. Regarding the lengths of the
some major rivers, the Kızılırmak is 1,355 km, Yeşilırmak is 519 km, Ceyhan is 509 km, Buyuk
Menderes is 307 km, Susurluk is 321 km, the Tigris is 523 km, the Euphrates River up to the
Syrian border is 1,263 km, and the Aras River up to the Armenia border is 548 km.