Page 28 - Water and DSİ

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CHAPTER III - HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY
3.1. Sources of Energy
In ancient times, human being discovered the power of water. They utilized water power in the
water mills to turn millstone. There are examples of water mills in Anatolia. One interesting
example is, from Seljukian Empire period, a bridge on the Haburman tributary of the Euphrates
near Çermik dating back to 1179. The bridge also has a waterway feeding a watermill nearby.
The first hydroelectric production in Turkey was started with a micro-scale hydroelectric power
plant of 60 kW in Tarsus, in 1902. The whole installed capacity was 35 300 kW and the production
was 62 GWh/year in those years and the electricity was only available in three cities, namely
Istanbul, Adapazarı and Tarsus. In order to estimate the electricity demand of the Country, as well
as to make surveys and investigations to cover such demand through hydroelectric or other energy
sources; EIE (The Electrical Power Resources Planning and Survey Administration) worked from
1935 to 2012 in which DSI has taken over its responsibilities.
In 1950, the total installed capacity of the power plants in Turkey was 408 MW, and only 4.4% (18
MW) of this was hydro. Then in 1954, DSİ (State Hydraulic Works) was established for planning,
design, construction and operation of water works. Among its duties, hydropower generation also
takes place besides irrigation and municipal water supply, flood control and other environmental
issues.
The level of energy consumption indicates the level of industrialization and prosperity of countries.
Recently, annual energy consumption per capita in Turkey has reached 3,000 kWh (kilowatt hours),
which is a bit above world average of 2,500 kWh. The average energy consumption for the
developed countries is 8,900 kWh, but it varies from 12,322 kWh in the USA to 827 kWh in China.
Industrialization is our main target on the road to economic and social development. Therefore, it
is essential to meet the energy demands of industry and other consumers in a timely and
sustainable manner.
Installed Capacity, Generation Capacity, and Capacity
Utilization Rates of Energy Plants As Per Fuel Diversity in Turkey
Fuel Diversity
Generating
Energy
2009 Year
2010 Year
Average
Capacity
Utilization
Average
Capacity
Utilization
Installed Generation Actual
Installed
Generation
Actual
Capacity
Capacity
Generati
on
Capacity Capacity
Generation
MW
GWh
GWh
%
MW
GWh
GWh
%
Hard coal + Exported
Coal+ Lignite
10.366
67.958 55.238
81 11.756 77.070
54.062 70
Fuel Oil, Diesel, Naphtha,LPG
1.724
11.554
5.251
45
1.661 11.136
3.164 28
Natural Gas
14.555
108.318 96.095
89 16.112 119.907
98.144 82
Others
2.695
340
2.750
458
Total Thermal Power
29.339
206.958 156.924
76 32.279 227.693
155.828 68
Geothermal & Wind Power
869
3.205
1.931
60
1.414
5.218
3.585 69
Hydroelectric Power
14.553
52.349 35.958
69 15.831 56.945
51.796 91
GENERAL TOTAL
44.761
262.512 194.813
74 49.524 289.856
211.208 73
(*) Source: Load Distribution Department of TEIAS-Turkish Electricity Transmission Authority)