Page 29 - Water and DSİ

Basic HTML Version

28
CHAPTER III - HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY
While total energy generation in Turkey in the 1950’s was a mere 800 GWh (gigawatt hours), this
figure has increased by about 264 times, that is, 211,208 GWh/year today. As of 2010, the current
installed capacity in Turkey is 49,524 MW (megawatt), which could generate an average of 289,856
GWh/year; however, total generation remains at 211,208 GWh for reasons such as failures,
maintenance and repair activities, operation policy, economic recession, low demand, drought,
efficiency, etc. In other words, average capacity utilisation remained at 73%. As of 2010, capacity
utilisation was 68% in thermal plants, while it was 91% in hydroelectric power plants. As of 2010,
24% of energy generation in Turkey depended on hydroelectric power, which is a renewable
energy source, and the remaining 74% on thermal power (natural gas, lignite, coal, fuel oil, etc.,
which are fossil fuels). A special emphasis has recently been placed on alternative energy sources
such as wind and geothermal power. As of 2010, the share of geothermal and wind power in total
energy generation in Turkey has reached %2. There have been some steps taken towards
introducing the use of nuclear power as well.
The reserves of natural gas and oil are little or no in Turkey. Hence, Turkey has to import oil,
natural gas, and even hard coal to meet its energy needs. In recent years, an upward trend has taken
place in the consumption of natural gas in Turkey for both domestic and industrial use. Natural gas
power plants aim to meet the growing energy demand of industries. Hence, the share of
hydroelectric has dropped while that of thermal energy has risen in overall energy generation.
Nevertheless, the European Union places great emphasis on green power in energy policies
(hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass energies). As things stand, it is important to harmonize the
energy policy and relevant legislation in Turkey with European energy policy. As a result, the
weight of hydroelectric power in overall generation needs to be increased.
The following table makes comparisons of various sources of energy in terms of air pollution,
effects on climate, normal operational radioactivity, eyesores, meeting peak demand, and risk
vulnerability. This table indicates that hydroelectric power plants are the least risky and the least
harmful ones in comparison with the other types of power plants.
0
30
60
90
120
Billion
kWh
k
52
% 25
6,15
% 2,93
%
46
%
24,50
Coal
Fuel Oil
Natural Gas
ENERGY PRODUCTION BY SOURCE IN TURKEY
(Total 210 Billion kWh in 2010)
Thermic
Hydroelectric
96,6
51,5
%73,93