Page 35 - Water and DSİ

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CHAPTER III - HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY
Coruh Region
There are ongoing plans about creating a second chain of major hydroelectric projects around the
Coruh basin. When all of the projects (8,260 GWh) in the Coruh River Master Plan got completed,
this chain of projects would exploit 6.4% of Turkey’s overall hydroelectric potential. In order to
define work phases of these projects, PR for “Plans Ready”; FDR for “Final Design Ready”; UC
for “Under Construction”, and IO for “In Operation” are used.
Coruh River HEPPS projects are: Laleli (PR, 99 MW-245 GWh), Ispir (PR, 54 MW-327 GWh),
Güllübağ (PR, 84 MW-285 GWh), Aksu (PR, 120 MW-344 GWh), Arkun (PR, 222 MW-788
GWh), Yusufeli (FDR, 540 MW-1,705 GWh), Artvin (FDR, 332 MW-1,026 GWh), Deriner (UC,
670 MW- 2,118 GWh),
Borçka (IO, 300 MW-1,039 GWh) and Muratlı (IO, 115 MW-444 GWh).
3.4. Storage Facilities and Characteristics
Water Storage Facilities are designed according to catchment basin characteristics. Water storage
facilities being the insurance of all the system is one of the important rings of the water cycle. They
act as emergency service during the droughts and floods.
Water Storage Facilities are regulators, small dams, and large dams. Regulators do not store water
as much as dams. They regulate existing water for irrigation, water supply, or hydroelectricity
generation. Regulators have some properties that dams have not. Regulators can have fish pass
facility and sluice way in order to remove accumulated sediment. But today’s technological
conditions make them possible on dams as well.
According to ICOLD (International Commission, if a dam reservoir is less than 3 million m³ water
volume and its height from the foundation is less than 15 m, it may be coined as a small dam.
Dams and small dams may be constructed for one purpose or multipurpose.
Benefits of dams are industrial and irrigation water supply, hydropower generation, fishery,
recreation, protection of wildlife and nature, and prevention of floods droughts and domestic
hazards.
The most important factors for selecting dam types are: topography, foundation properties, and
availability of the construction materials. Economy and strength against forces (water load and
seismic forces) is to be ensured in dam type selection.
Topography and Foundation properties:
If the topography dam site has narrow chasm and if
both side abutments and the foundation dam are sound enough to resist external forces, the type
of concrete arch dam may ensure economy and strength since the amount of material may be
much less than that of an embankment type dam.
Availability of the Construction Materials:
If clay and earth materials are available in or around
dam construction site clay core earth filled dam type may be suitable. If clay, gravel, and rock
material are available in or around dam construction site clay core rock filled dam type may be
suitable for economy and strength of the dam. But if the extraction of clay material is expensive
due to private land ownership
and agricultural plantation (e.g. fruit grove) creating expensive
process to remove clay from on the top of the soil, RCC or Hard fill
types may be appropriate.
As technology in construction and machinery develops so does the dam types. In early types of
dams were brick dams. When concrete technology developed, concrete dams appeared. However,
soil removing and clay processing machine technology has been invented. These machines remove
clay material from the top of the soil and makes available for the impervious core of the dams.
Clay core embankment dams have many advantages over concrete dams. For that reasons clay core
rockfill or clay core composite fill embankment dams have been widely used since then.