Page 36 - Water and DSİ

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Some Dam Construction Steps
Once the feasibility study is over, the final design
and application projects are prepared for the
Diversion tunnel and a cofferdam are
constructed to divert the river so as to dry
the construction site.
Excavation for the body commences.
Filling of the body starts.
As the body rises, safety discharge units (spillway,
bottom outlet) are constructed to resist flood
recurrence cycles of 25 years.
If a dam had a Hydroelectric Power Plant
(HEPP), the electro-mechanical equipment
would be installed.
3.5. Dam Types
Dam types can be classified according to dam materials or other dam properties. One of the most
distinctive section of dams is impervious zone. As per impervious zone characteristics, dams have
been classified as Dams with impervious Core, Dams with Impervious upstream (U/S) Face, and
Composite Dams.
3.5.1. Dams with Impervious Core
Impervious material is clay material. There are 2 types as Rockfill dikes and Composite dikes
Composite dikes are to contain riprap protection against wave action. Rockfill dikes are used when
broken rock available nearby excavation. Composite dikes contain mainly earth, sand, and gravel.