Page 54 - Water and DSİ

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In 2009, the average yield for irrigated cereals (wheat and barley) was 4.68 tonnes/ha against 1.77
tonnes/ha for rainfed cereals, for irrigated cotton was 4.2 tonnes/ha, for maize was 11.53
tonnes/ha, for sugar beet was 60.31 tonnes/ha, for fruit was 24.36 tonnes/ha, for vegetables was
39.61 tonnes/ha and for forage crops was 14.05 tonnes/ha.
Increase in the amount of crops thanks to irrigation are: cereals 163%, legumes 175%, sugar beat
84%, cotton 237%, maize 472%, fruits 143%, citrus 145%, and vegetables 161%.
Rainfed crops include field crops (wheat, barley, etc), nut trees (olive, pistachio, walnut, almond,
hazelnut and chestnut), and winter vegetables
radish, cabbage, carrot, spinach, broccoli, etc.) Of
the total rainfed crops production, 41.7% comes from wheat and barley alone.
Almost one third of Turkey’s total
area is arable land which is 28 million
hectares. Comprehensive studies
points out that, 8.5 million hectares
(Mha) of the arable land is
economically irrigable. As of at the
end of 2011, 5.61 Mha of
economically irrigable land have been
equipped with irrigation facilities. By
2023, irrigation network of 2.89 Mha has been planned to be completed by DSİ. This means that
DSİ should invest about 24 billion USD in irrigation.
From Turkish experiences, irrigation increases GDAP (Gross Domestic Agricultural Product)
approximately 6 times. As roughly figures, agricultural income is around 85
TL/da before irrigation
project. However, this figure has been 557
TL/da after irrigation project developed.
4.3. Irrigation Network in Turkey
Irrigation network developed by institutions can be seen at the tables. DSİ is major state institution
developing irrigation projects in the country excluding the abolished GDRS (General Directorate
of Rural Services). In addition to this, there are farmer based small scaled irrigation networks that
accounts for about one million ha. These types of irrigations are called as individual farmer
irrigations usually located near the water courses, around the lakes and reservoirs.
As of 2011, the cost of irrigation development varies between US$ 5 000/ha for small schemes
and US$ 15 000/ha for large schemes (including pump). The costs of operation and maintenance
(O&M) vary from US$ 330/ha for schemes smaller than 1 000 ha, to US$ 180/ha for schemes
larger than 1 000 ha (including dams).
As of the beginning of 2012, Agricultural Land Potential of
Turkey and Development Status
Surface Area of Turkey : 78 Million ha
Arable Land : 28 Million ha
Economically Irrigable Area : 8,5 Million ha
Total area equipped with irrigation facilities:
5.61 Million ha
which is
of economically irrigable area
Total area equipped with irrigation facilities by DSİ:
3.32 Million ha
GDAP (TL/da)
Without Project
With Project
85 TL/da
557 TL/da