Page 58 - Water and DSİ

Basic HTML Version

57
CHAPTER IV - IRRIGATION
Farmers’ demand,
Land, climate and ecological suitability,
Water resource availability,
Gravity irrigation to be preferred to pumping, and
Land consolidation works for economical irrigation infrastructure.
The Projects complying with these all criteria is called
“5 star irrigation projects”.
The first and
crucial step on investment of irrigation projects is the farmer participation which shows the
farmers’ willingness for irrigation and accepting the cost recovery of irrigation investments by
establishing an organization. Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives and Water User Associations
are the most widely irrigation organizations that farmers have constituted.
Fertile lands and suitable climate conditions can give satisfactory results in getting more than one
crop in the same year. On account of this, the nature of lands and interaction with ecological
balance are to be cautiously considered for irrigation development.
Dams may have more than one purpose, including flood protection, energy generation, irrigation,
and domestic and industrial water supply. If water source is a dam or a small dam, farmers will
have safe and clean water along the irrigation season for their irrigated agricultural activities.
Gravity irrigation investment cost is much cheaper than pumping irrigation investments. What is
more, pumping irrigation incurs much more the financial burden on farmers during the operation
process of pumping irrigation. Hereby, gravity irrigation is preferred.
Likewise, expropriation and other investment costs decrease in consolidated lands. In this way,
optimal and efficient operation conditions could be provided. Hence, prepared areas in terms of
land consolidation are preferred for irrigation investment.
Because of the population increase and fragmentation of lands by inheritance, lands get smaller
continuously in Turkey, and expected benefit from the irrigation projects could not be obtained
from small agricultural land. Continuously increasing agricultural land prices, expropriation
expenses in some areas may have equal cost to project budget, even more. To solve these
problems, land consolidation activities are implemented by DSİ. Land consolidation eliminates
expropriation costs, and decreases construction, operation and maintenance costs to large extent in
irrigation projects.
4.5. DSİ Irrigation Network
As of 2010, DSİ has realized the construction of 2,177 irrigation schemes which serve net
2,181,738 ha. Among this total, DSİ operates 76,420 ha on 59 irrigation schemes itself whereas
2,137,000 (719 irrigation schemes) has been transferred to Water User Organizations,
predominantly to Water User Associations. Some small scale irrigation projects (17,510 ha on 31
irrigation schemes) have been constructed by DSİ in exchange of money for other agencies such as
State Farms, Universities etc. Besides, DSİ in cooperation with defunct GDRS has developed
452,238 ha (1,368 irrigation schemes) and transferred to Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives for
Operation and Maintenance.
Area Equipped with Irrigation Facilities By DSİ
Management Type
Number of Network Net Area(ha)
Gross Area (ha)
Operated by DSİ
59
76,420
90,000
Transferred to WUOs
719
2,181,738
2,572,240
Constructed for Other Institutions
31
17,510
20,644
Groundwater Cooperatives
1,368
452,238
533,174
TOTAL
2,177
2,727,906
3,216,154