Page 64 - Water and DSİ

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CHAPTER IV - IRRIGATION
Water User Organizations (WUOs)
New laws have not been prepared for IMT. Transfer activities have been carried out pursuant to
DSI Establishment Law No. 6200 item k. Water User Organizations have been established
pursuant to Local Administrations Law No. 5355, Village Legal Entities Village Act no. 442,
Municipalities Municipality Act no. 1580, Cooperatives Act no. 1163.
WUOs can be in several forms. If an irrigation network goes through one local authority area, the
whole management of the irrigation network can be transferred to that authority (Municipality or
village authority). However, the majority of irrigation networks goes through more than one local
authority area or serves more than one administrative unit. they could be transferred to WUAs.
Water User Associations have been established according to Law No. 5355, 1580 and 442,
Irrigation Cooperatives (ICs) have been established according to Law No. 1163. Irrigation
schemes, which serve the area of only one administrative unit, could be transferred to ICs, as well
as to the Municipalities and Village Authorities. The transfer ratio of DSİ has reached 96%, which
indicates the success of these transfer activities. This figure does not include the transfer of
Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives (GWICs), which were set up jointly by DSİ and the
abolished GDRS. Now, SPA (Special Provincial Administration) has taken over the responsibility
of GDRS). Detailed information related to GWIC is given below. But shortly, well-drilling,
electrification, and motor-pumps requirements of GWIC are carried out by DSİ, while irrigation
network is completed by SPA.
Outcomes of IMT
The transfer of Operation and Management (O&M) services to the Water User Organizations
(WUOs) has had positive impact on the O&M issues both from the technical and financial point
of view. The participatory approach by the users has generated a sense of responsibility that did
not existed before, to better use the resources and the facilities and protect them. Water use is
more reliable and equitable, the plots situated at the upstream or the downstream of the irrigated
land are equally served. All farmers using water for irrigation are members of the WUAs, and they
are equally served as a member. There is a mutual supervision mechanism, carried out locally on a
continuous basis. On the whole, the collection rate has increased from 42% (irrigation by DSI) to
more than 90%. Conflict management has been accomplished locally. Moreover, voting in a WUA
assembly and having a chance to be a member of executive council encourage the people to
participate and cooperate.
Irrigation efficiency has been attained. Overall, the area of irrigated land has increased for the same
volume of water, a consequence of better operation and maintenance of the facilities provided by
the local O&M (operation and maintenance) staff of the WUOs. Energy consumption of pump
irrigation has decreased after the transfer.
Name of the Organization
Area (ha)
Area Rate (%)
Village Authority
37,675
2
Municipality
73,200
3
WUAs
1,958,028
90
ICs
111,510
5
Other
1,325
0
TOTAL
2,181,738
100