Page 65 - Water and DSİ

Basic HTML Version

64
CHAPTER IV - IRRIGATION
4.9. Groundwater Usage
Groundwater in Turkey is used for domestic and industrial water supply, as well as for irrigation.
Groundwater activities used to be carried out by DSI and defunct GDRA (General Directorate of
Rural Affairs. Groundwater activities now carried out by DSI and Provincial Administrations.
Groundwater Potential
Groundwater investigations have been carried out since 1956. According to studies performed
until 2010, exploitable groundwater resources of Turkey are 13.66 km
3
/year, excluding the
discharge of the springs. At present, DSİ has allocated total groundwater of 13.66 km
3
/year, 4,091
km
3
/year of which is for DSI, public, and GWO irrigations, 5,091 km
3
/year of which is for
domestic and industrial purposes, and individual farmer use of 3,106 km
3
/year.
The groundwater activities in Turkey have been executed by DSİ on behalf of the State according
to Groundwater Code 167. DSİ determines number, location, depth, other characteristics of wells
and the amount of water extraction. The border, structure and characteristics of groundwater areas
are defined by DSİ as per Groundwater Code 167, Article 3, and then these areas are proclaimed
as “Operable Areas for Groundwater Extraction” by related Ministry upon DSİ General
Directorate’s proposal. Searching and using groundwater in and out of proclaimed groundwater
operation areas depends on the permission given by DSİ as per Code 167, Article 8. In the same
manner, permission documents for rehabilitation and alteration are also granted by DSİ.
GROUNDWATER REZERVATION AND ALLOCATION
Allocation
km³
%
Groundwater Irrigation
4,091
30
Domestic and Industrial Usage
5,941
43
Individual Irrigations
3,106
23
Remained
0,522
4
Total
13,660
100
Groundwater Irrigations
Groundwater Irrigations can be divided into 2 groups; State Irrigations and Public Irrigations.
State Irrigations
State Irrigations can be divided into 3 groups; DSI Groundwater Irrigations, Public Groundwater
Irrigations, and Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives (GICs)
DSI Groundwater Irrigations
There are combine irrigations where surface water is insufficient, groundwater extractions is
supplementary tool for irrigation. There are also groundwater irrigations constructed and managed
by DSİ. As of at the end of 2010, 1,665 deep wells are used in 83,432 ha of these irrigations. From
year to year, operational rights of these irrigation networks are being transferred to irrigation
organizations.
Public Groundwater Irrigations
In the need of public institutions, mostly Agricultural Enterprises (TIGEM), DSİ drills
groundwater wells and provides irrigation schemes with equipments on the cost recovery base. The
operation of these projects is performed by related organizations or institutions. As of at the end
of 2010, in 25 projects of public organizations, with 342 drilled wells, 16,140 ha area have been
irrigated by groundwater.