Page 66 - Water and DSİ

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CHAPTER IV - IRRIGATION
Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives
These irrigation networks constitute the biggest part of groundwater irrigations in Turkey.
Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives have been founded in 1966 in accordance with the
cooperatives Code 1163. Along this 45 year period, Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives have
indicated intense demand and this caused great success for the development of ground water. This
kind of groundwater irrigations, originally, has been started by the cooperation of DSİ and General
Directorate of Soil-Water Conservation Services
Later on, the General Directorate of Soil-Water Conservation Services was abolished, and instead,
the General Directorate of Rural Services has been founded. However the activities have been kept
on by these two General Directorates together under the name of “Irrigation Cooperatives with
Restricted Responsibility”. These activities are realized based on the Cooperation Protocol dated as
March 03, 1966 and then revised protocol dated December 31, 1973 which were signed among
the institutions; DSİ, Soil-Water Conservation Services and Agricultural Bank. The purpose of the
Protocols was to encourage establishing irrigation cooperatives, construct facilities and perform
activities once these cooperatives have been in operation.
DSİ has been assigned to realize following activities concerning irrigation cooperatives services
which are to prepare technical and economical feasibility reports concerning the facilities to be
constructed by DSİ, to drill groundwater wells, to erect the electrification installations to these
wells, to determine right motor-pumps and procure them for the wells. After the installments of
the wells, Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives take the responsibility of facilities constructed by
DSİ, to perform operation, maintenance and repair works of them.
The abolished General Directorate of Rural Services (GDRS) used to perform the services and
facilities of the ground water wells on the free charge basis. However, the services and facilities by
DSİ are subjected to repayment. The cost recovery of these facilities has been computed taking
under no interest consideration, and facilities have been transferred to cooperatives in accordance
with the “Transfer Contract” which prepared by DSİ, pursuant to the Decision of Council of
Ministers. The Transfer Contract used to comprise 30 years of operational period, the first five
years of being the grace period, and following 25 years containing the cost recovery schedule.
During this 30 years period, operational ground water wells would be renewed just one once, but
motor-pumps used to be renewed twice. However, with the decree of the Prime Ministry dated
June 26, 1997, Transfer Contracts have been renewed for facilities constructed after this date. The
cost recovery has been reduced to 15 years-the first three years being of grace period, and 12 years
being regular cost recovery period which are subjected to annually equal payment installments.
As of at the end of 2010, an area of 452,238 ha has been irrigated by means of 11,235 deep wells
by Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives. Presently, there are 1,383 irrigation cooperatives,
intensely in Konya, Isparta, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Edirne, Samsun and İzmir.
In DSİ, groundwater irrigation facilities are transferred to the Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives
in accordance with the Law Code no 6200. So far, as of at the end of 2010, including enlargement
work, the management of 2,040 irrigation projects which embrace an area of 428,000 ha containing
10,380 deep wells have been transferred to Groundwater Irrigation Cooperatives (GICs).
Hereby, as of the end of 2010, Public Groundwater Irrigations, Groundwater Irrigation
Cooperatives (GICs) and Private Groundwater Irrigations manage net 552,000 ha area equipped
with irrigation facilities and 13,242 operational drilling wells using groundwater resources. In
Turkey, beginning from groundwater irrigation projects’ starting date, the greatest development
has been realized in irrigation cooperatives. The share of GICs in total groundwater irrigated area
has reached 82%. The share of irrigations by DSI in total groundwater irrigations is 17%.