Page 68 - Water and DSİ

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67
CHAPTER V - DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY
5.1. History of Domestic Water Supply in Anatolia
Development of dams and water conveyance systems in Anatolia dates back hundreds years ago.
The antic city of Bergama in Western Anatolia was provided water by eight water conveying
systems belonging to the Hellenistic era. The water conveyance system around Mount Madra,
dated as 200 BC bears special significance in terms of water engineering. Another interesting
facility dating back to 130 BC comprises two tunnels through which Bergama stream flows under
the Serapis Temple.
The antic city of Ephesus had its water from a waterway
extending 10 km in length. It is also known that the area around
the Arthemis Temple had its water through a reverse siphoning
system. Perge antic city is also significant for its success in water
storing and conveyance systems. High capacity conveyance lines
dating back to the 1
st
and 2
nd
centuries conveyed water from two
shorts cut to BC Perge antic city having five discrete water
collection points, cisterns and canals for wastewater discharge. Remaining from the 2
nd
century
BC the water conveying system in the antic city of Aspendos deserves to be called as one of the
engineering marvels of antic times. The antic Side city on the Mediterranean coast used Manavgat
stream to solve its water problem. Water from this stream reached the antic city through a 30 km
in length canal (2
nd
century BC). Monumental fountains in the city helped dwellers provide their
water needs. Among 3 antic dams in Anatolia, the one constructed in Dara near Mardin during
the reign of Justinianus (527-565) is known as the oldest arch-type dam in the world. The
Löptüğün landfilled dam near Amasya was constructed in the Byzantine era.
In Ottoman architecture merited for its mastery of reaching fine shape and function by getting
rid of trivial details. Celebrated Architect
Sinan contributed much to the solution of
water problems in İstanbul with his neatly
designed waterways. Kırkçeşme water
conveyance system constructed by the
Roman Emperor Theodosius (379-395 AD)
is one of the three significant waterways
serving to the European part of İstanbul.
After restorations introduced in Cebeciköy
during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, a
part of water was diverted to fountains under Bozdoğan Aqueduct. The coin of “Kırkçeşme”
(“40 fountains”) derives from the distribution system to these fountains.
In Üsküdar, many civilian, military and religious premises were provided water through 16
independent conveyance systems built during various periods. These water facilities are fed by
springs existing on the slope of Çamlıca hills.
Facilities named Mihrimah, Solak Sinan, Atik
Valide, Hüdai, Çinili, Aslan Ağa, Selami Ali Efendi
and Cedit fed more than 150 fountains, religious
lodges and palaces in this part of Istanbul. Water
storage and conveyance has always been a problem
in Istanbul. The Taksim water system dating back
to the 18
th
century is one facility mitigating this
problem.